Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

 
Central Intelligence Agency
The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence
World Factbook Title
navigation arrows
View Text Low Bandwidth Version Download Publication
Europe :: Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the UK)
page last updated on October 18, 2011
Flag of Gibraltar
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Gibraltar
Click flag or map to enlarge Opens in New Window
 
Map of Gibraltar
Click map to enlarge Opens in New Window
Photos of Gibraltar
 
Navigation Arrow view 10 photos Opens in New Window
of Gibraltar
Expand All | collapse All
Introduction ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, tripartite talks among Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have been held with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
Back to Top
Geography ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
36 08 N, 5 21 W
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 6.5 sq km
country comparison to the world: 243
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
12 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
territorial sea: 3 nm
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
Back to Top
People and Society ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28,956 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 20.4% (male 3,040/female 2,862)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 9,607/female 9,451)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,934/female 2,062) (2011 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 33.3 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 34.3 years (2011 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.273% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
14.23 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 6.69 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 167
male: 7.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 78.68 years
country comparison to the world: 47
male: 75.84 years
female: 81.72 years (2011 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.96 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA
female: NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Back to Top
Government ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
overseas territory of the UK
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than October 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Barbary macaque
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
Back to Top
Economy ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.275 billion (2008)
country comparison to the world: 195
$1.203 billion (2007 est.)
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
8.8% (2007)
0% (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$43,000 (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$38,400 (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 0%
industry: 0%
services: 100% (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)
country comparison to the world: 214
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: negligible
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA%
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $475.8 million
expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
43% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
13.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 96
2.6% (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA%
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
156 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
156 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 kWh (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
25,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
26,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$271 million (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.6388 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.4993 (2007)
0.5418 (2006)
Back to Top
Communications ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
24,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 187
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28,600 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 202
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides television and radio broadcasting services via 1 television station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
.gi
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2,053 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 154
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
20,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 192
Back to Top
Transportation ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 218
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 29 km
country comparison to the world: 218
paved: 29 km (2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 265
country comparison to the world: 32
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 139, chemical tanker 65, container 35, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 250 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Finland 2, Germany 125, Greece 7, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 33, Norway 42, Singapore 1, Sweden 12, UAE 5, UK 4)
note: this country allows large numbers of ships owned by foreign entities to be registered in its national shipping registry and to fly its flag; these ships operate under the laws of the flag state
registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Gibraltar
Back to Top
Military ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 6,017
females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 228
female: 220 (2010 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
Back to Top
Transnational Issues ::Gibraltar
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
Back to Top
Expand All | collapse All
  The online Factbook is updated weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.