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Africa :: Burundi
page last updated on October 31, 2011
Flag of Burundi
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Burundi
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Introduction ::Burundi
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Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, signed a South African brokered ceasefire with the country's last rebel group in September of 2006 but still faces many challenges.
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Geography ::Burundi
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Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
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3 30 S, 30 00 E
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total: 27,830 sq km
country comparison to the world: 147
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km
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slightly smaller than Maryland
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total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
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hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
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lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
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nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
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arable land: 35.57%
permanent crops: 13.12%
other: 51.31% (2005)
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230 sq km (2008)
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3.6 cu km (1987)
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total: 0.29 cu km/yr (17%/6%/77%)
per capita: 38 cu m/yr (2000)
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flooding; landslides; drought
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soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
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People and Society ::Burundi
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noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
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Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
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Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
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Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
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10,216,190 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
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0-14 years: 46% (male 2,360,214/female 2,335,541)
15-64 years: 51.6% (male 2,598,011/female 2,669,376)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 101,207/female 151,841) (2011 est.)
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total: 16.9 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 17.2 years (2011 est.)
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3.462% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
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41.01 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
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9.61 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
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3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
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urban population: 11% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 4.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
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BUJUMBURA (capital) 455,000 (2009)
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
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970 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 6
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total: 61.82 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 30
male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
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total population: 58.78 years
country comparison to the world: 189
male: 57.09 years
female: 60.52 years (2011 est.)
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6.16 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
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13.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 7
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0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
country comparison to the world: 183
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0.73 beds/1,000 population (2006)
country comparison to the world: 159
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improved:
urban: 83% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 72% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 28% of population (2008)
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improved:
urban: 49% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 46% of population
unimproved:
urban: 51% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 54% of population (2008)
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3.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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180,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
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15,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
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38.9% (2000)
country comparison to the world: 6
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8.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.3%
male: 67.3%
female: 52.2% (2000 est.)
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total: 10 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2009)
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Government ::Burundi
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conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
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republic
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name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
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1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
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Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
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ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005
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mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
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elections: the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 June 2010 (next to be held in 2015); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA elected president by popular vote; Pierre NKURUNZIZA 91.6%, other 8.4%; note - opposition parties withdrew from the election due to alleged government interference in the electoral process
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bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a Senate (54 seats; 34 members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats, 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TBD; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 81.2%, UPRONA 11.6%, FRODEBU 5.9%, others 1.3%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 81, UPRONA 17, FRODEBU 5, other 3
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Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; High Court of Justice (composed of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court)
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governing parties: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]; Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Bonaventure NIYOYANKANA]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]; National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
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Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization); Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
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ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Angele NIYUHIRE
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
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chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. H. SLUTZ
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 223454
FAX: [257] 222926
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divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
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lion
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name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
note: adopted 1962
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Economy ::Burundi
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Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural which accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the coffee trade. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 15 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Less than 2% of the population has electricity in its homes. Burundi's GDP grew around 4% annually in 2006-10. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity - risk undermining planned economic reforms. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation. Burundi will continue to remain heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors; the delay of funds after a corruption scandal cut off bilateral aid in 2007 reduced government's revenues and its ability to pay salaries. Burundi joined the East African Community, which should boost Burundi's regional trade ties, and received $700 million in debt relief in 2009. Government corruption is also hindering the development of a healthy private sector as companies seek to navigate an environment with ever-changing rules.
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$3.397 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
$3.272 billion (2009 est.)
$3.161 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
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$1.489 billion (2010 est.)
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3.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
3.5% (2009 est.)
4.5% (2008 est.)
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$300 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 226
$300 (2009 est.)
$300 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
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agriculture: 31.6%
industry: 21.4%
services: 47% (2010 est.)
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4.245 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 85
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agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
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NA%
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68% (2002 est.)
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lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006)
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42.4 (1998)
country comparison to the world: 49
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31.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
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revenues: $424.4 million
expenditures: $525.4 million (2010 est.)
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28.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
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-6.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
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6.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
11% (2009 est.)
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11.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
10% (31 December 2009 est.)
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12.42% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
14.08% (31 December 2009 est.)
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$383.2 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
$313.7 million (31 December 2009 est.)
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$628.4 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$527.4 million (31 December 2009 est.)
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$436.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$415.1 million (31 December 2009 est.)
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$NA
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coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
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light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
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7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
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208 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
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273.4 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
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80 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2008 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
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3,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
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2,450 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
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-$158.1 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$130.1 million (2009 est.)
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$81.7 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
$68.2 million (2009 est.)
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coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
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Germany 27.5%, Pakistan 10.3%, Belgium 5.7%, Rwanda 5%, US 4.2%, China 4.1% (2010)
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$503 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
$335 million (2009 est.)
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capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
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Saudi Arabia 15.8%, Uganda 7.8%, Belgium 7.6%, China 7.5%, Kenya 6.9%, Zambia 6.4%, France 4.2% (2010)
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$332.1 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
$323.1 million (31 December 2009 est.)
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$1.2 billion (2003)
country comparison to the world: 148
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Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
1,250.75 (2010)
1,230.18 (2009)
1,198 (2008)
1,065 (2007)
1,030 (2006)
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Communications ::Burundi
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31,500 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 178
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838,400 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 149
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general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at a meager 10 per 100 persons
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2009)
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state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV broadcast station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately-owned radio broadcast stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2007)
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.bi
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201 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 194
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157,800 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 147
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Transportation ::Burundi
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8 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 162
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total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2010)
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total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
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1 (2010)
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total: 12,322 km
country comparison to the world: 129
paved: 1,286 km
unpaved: 11,036 km (2004)
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(mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo) (2010)
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Bujumbura
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Military ::Burundi
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National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes naval detachment, Air Wing, and Coast Guard), National Gendarmerie (2011)
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military service is voluntary; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 does not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claims that no one younger than 18 is being recruited; mandatory retirement age 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), and 55 (officers) (2011)
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males age 16-49: 2,182,327
females age 16-49: 2,202,125 (2010 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,398,769
females age 16-49: 1,481,417 (2010 est.)
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male: 117,956
female: 116,956 (2010 est.)
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5.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
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Transnational Issues ::Burundi
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Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces persist in the Great Lakes region
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refugees (country of origin): 9,849 (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
IDPs: 100,000 (armed conflict between government and rebels; most IDPs in northern and western Burundi) (2007)
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current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced begging and labor and sex trafficking; male tourists from the Middle East, particularly Lebanon, exploit Burundian girls in prostitution; Burundian girls are forced into prostitution in Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government continued its efforts to identify trafficking victims, investigate potential trafficking offenses, and raise public awareness; despite these efforts, the government did not demonstrate overall increased efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year, particularly in prosecution and protection (2011)
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