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Europe :: Andorra
page last updated on October 11, 2011
Flag of Andorra
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Andorra
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Map of Andorra
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Introduction ::Andorra
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For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. For decades Andorra enjoyed its status as a small refuge of fiscal and banking freedom and benefitted from Spanish and French tourists attracted to the country's duty-free shopping. The situation has changed in recent years as Andorra started to tax foreign investment and other sectors. Tourism accounts for over 80% of Andorra's gross domestic product.
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Geography ::Andorra
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Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
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42 30 N, 1 30 E
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total: 468 sq km
country comparison to the world: 195
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
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2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
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total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
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rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
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lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
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hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
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arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)
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NA
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avalanches
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deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
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party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
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People and Society ::Andorra
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noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
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Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
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Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
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Roman Catholic (predominant)
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84,825 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
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0-14 years: 15.6% (male 6,799/female 6,440)
15-64 years: 71.4% (male 31,545/female 29,037)
65 years and over: 13% (male 5,502/female 5,502) (2011 est.)
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total: 40.5 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 40.2 years (2011 est.)
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0.33% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
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9.66 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
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6.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
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urban population: 88% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
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ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 25,000 (2009)
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at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
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total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 204
male: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
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total population: 82.43 years
country comparison to the world: 4
male: 80.35 years
female: 84.64 years (2011 est.)
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1.35 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
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7.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 61
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3.716 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 19
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2.62 beds/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 85
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
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NA
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NA
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NA
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3.2% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 122
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
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total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2008)
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Government ::Andorra
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conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra
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parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces' representatives
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name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
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1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Seu d'Urgel)
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Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
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Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993
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mixed legal system of civil and customary law with canon (religious) law influences
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Christian FREMONT (since September 2008) and Spanish Coprince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i Oste (since 30 July 2003)
head of government: Executive Council President (or Cap de Govern) Antoni MARTI PETIT (since 12 May 2011)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
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elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council (Andorran Parliament) and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
election results: Antoni MARTI PETIT was elected Executive Council president; percent of General Council vote - NA; note - the leader of the party which wins a majority of seats in the General Council is usually elected president
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unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28-42 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - DA 55%, PS 35%, Andorra for Change 7%, Andorran Green 3%; seats by party - DA 20, PS 6, Lauredian Union 2
note: under usual circumstances, the next election would have been held in 2013, but because the General Council was unable to pass important laws such as the budget, it was dissolved and an election was held
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Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia (coprinces appoint the members); Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional (coprinces appoint the members)
note: all judges elected for a 6-year term renewable term
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there are four political parties at the national level: Andorra for Change or ApC [Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT], coalition including Liberal Party (PRA) and Reformist Coalition; Greens of Andorra [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]; Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]; note - there are also several smaller parties at the Parish level (one is Lauredian Union)
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NA
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CE, FAO, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
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chief of mission: Ambassador Narcis CASAL de Fonsdeviela
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
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the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
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three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
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name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS
note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative
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Economy ::Andorra
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Tourism, commerce, and finance are the mainstays of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounting for more than three-quarters of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status for some products and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
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$3.3 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
$4.22 billion (2008 est.)
$3.66 billion (2007 est.)
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$NA
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3.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
2.6% (2008 est.)
2% (2007 est.)
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$46,700 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$44,900 (2008 est.)
$42,500 (2007 est.)
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agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
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38,220 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 200
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agriculture: 0.4%
industry: 4.7%
services: 94.9% (2010)
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2.9% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 22
2.7% (2008)
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NA (2008)
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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revenues: $872 million
expenditures: $868.4 million (2009)
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1.6% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 50
0% (2009)
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small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
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tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture
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NA%
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101 million kWh (2009)
country comparison to the world: 193
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598.7 million kWh (2009)
country comparison to the world: 161
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9 million kWh (2009)
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497.7 million kWh
note: most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower (2009)
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$64 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 194
$89.5 million (2008)
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tobacco products, furniture
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$1.474 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 162
$1.801 billion (2008)
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consumer goods, food, electricity
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$NA
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euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7179 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7306 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)
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Communications ::Andorra
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37,900 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 172
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64,500 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 191
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general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
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1 public television station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations operating; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital television broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international television channels available (2010)
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.ad
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26,773 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 100
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67,100 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 170
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Transportation ::Andorra
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total: 320 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 202
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Military ::Andorra
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no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2010)
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males age 16-49: 22,390 (2010 est.)
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males age 16-49: 17,977
females age 16-49: 17,069 (2010 est.)
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male: 397
female: 347 (2010 est.)
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defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
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Transnational Issues ::Andorra
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none
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